Steatite provides consultancy in the design and manufacture of monopulse antennas


QMS-00646        Plastic quad horns       QMS-00645

Steatite Antennas has experience of designing and manufacturing monopulse antennas where monopulse antennas are used to precisely identify the direction of a radio signal.

In the simplest form they consist of two close spaced identical antennas whose outputs feeds a device called a comparator.  This device does two things:  first the two signals are added to produce a pattern having a peak at boresight; secondly they are subtracted producing a pattern that has a narrow deep null at boresight.  It has two corresponding output ports called sum and difference.

The sum pattern will have a smoothly varying shape which can be used to approximately identify the direction.  Having found the approximate direction the very sharp null in the difference pattern can be used to give a much more precise bearing, by instructing the control system to look for minimum signal.   The two port monopulse can only be used for tracking in one plane only, for example ships or land vehicles.

The technique can be extended to direction finding in two planes, for example tracking aircraft in elevation and in azimuth.  For this four identical antennas are needed, placed in a two by two arrangement.  These feed a more complex form of the comparator generating an overall sum, elevation difference and azimuth difference patterns.  It has three corresponding output ports.   The azimuth and elevation difference outputs each feed a separate control system which looks for a minimum in the corresponding patterns. For radar applications the transmitter is connected to the sum port.

The use of four identical antennas is ideal for relatively narrow bandwidth  applications where the fractional bandwidth is not much greater than 50%  (see products below) . However, there is a growing need for ultra wide band applications where four identical antennas cannot easily be used. This is because of a conflict in the requirement for an aperture to be large enough to radiate at the lowest frequencies of the band and the requirement for the distance between two antennas to be small enough at the highest frequencies of the band. To avoid these fundamental issues Steatite is able to develop quad-ridged 4-port feeds. This is a single integrated antenna capable of radiating four independent beam modes.  Bandwidths of 4:1 or greater are readily attainable.

Please download datasheets of previous monopulse antennas covering 8 to12 GHz and 15.5 to 17 GHz.

To find out more about Steatite Antennas or discuss specific requirements please contact on +44(0)1568 617920, or email 

For further information on all capabilities please download Steatite Company Overview.

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